Kamis, 10 Mei 2012


A. Background
Reading can stimulate the imagination. With reading, you select the cast, set the stage, and direct the action. As Dr. Bruno Bettelheim observed, “television captures the imagination but does not liberate it. A good book at once stimulates and frees the mind.” Reading also develops verbal skills. Reading requires and develops verbal skills; it is inextricably linked with speech and writing. Says one high school English teacher: “There is no question that your success as a student depends enormously on your vocabulary, both in what you can understand as you read and in how you reason as you write, and there is no way to build up a good vocabulary except by reading—there just is none.”
In today’s world, one of the most important ways to communicate with speakers of other languages and with members of other cultures is via reading. Reading comprehension is, therefore, a major objective of language instruction.

New and exciting reading materials keep appearing on the market almost daily. Many universities and teacher training institutions have developed courses to deal with the teaching of reading comprehension. Yet, when it comes down to it, the classroom teacher is left with the enormous task of adapting all these materials and ideas to his/her particular class. This instructional material is intended to help the teacher in the daily decision-making process within the reading comprehension lesson and across KTSP English Curriculum.
• According to KTSP Curriculum, the competence standard of senior high school students in English learning which also become the ultimate goal is that the student can communicate in various oral and written genre of text fluently and accurately. Meanwhile the goal of reading class is understanding the various meaning (interpersonal, ideational, and textual) in various interactional and transactional written texts mainly recount, narrative, procedure, descriptive, news item, report, analytical exposition, hortatory exposition, explanation, discussion, and review.

B. Objective
After studying this module, you are intended to have some competencies in:
1. Understanding genre-based approach.
2. Understanding the social function, generic structure, and significant features of genres.
3. Understanding the exploitation of text in the real classroom.
4. Enhancing the creative interaction dealing with recount, narrative, procedure, descriptive, news item, report, analytical exposition, hortatory exposition, explanation, discussion, and review texts.
5. Pacing the teaching cycle for a genre-based instruction.

3. Scope
This module covers the materials as follows:
1. The elaboration of genre terminology, how reading is elaborated in genre based instruction, understanding the social function, generic structure: recount, narrative, procedure, descriptive, news item, report, analytical exposition, hortatory exposition, explanation, discussion, and review.
2. In Chapter II, you are invited to have an appropriate sense in comprehending genre-based perspective in order to avoid misguided interpretation toward KTSP English Curriculum. In this chapter, we will also discuss the teaching cycle for a genre-based approach focusing on reading activities. it covers some point; building knowledge of the field, modeling of the text, joint construction of the text, and individual construction of the text. This chapter also presents the jigsaw reading game.


A. Reading in the genre-based instruction
The word genre comes from the French (and originally Latin) word for 'kind' or 'class'. The term is widely used in rhetoric, literary theory, media theory, and more recently linguistics, to refer to a distinctive type of 'text'. Genre study has been primarily nominological and typological in function. That is to say, it has taken as its principal task the division of the world of texts into types and the naming of those types.
Genre study aims to group texts according to type, and to identify and describe features which texts of a particular genre have in common. The definition of the term genre varies somewhat between different writers, but most follow Swales (1990) and Bahtia (1993) in relating the concept of genre to communicative events or acts. In such approaches, genres are defined not in terms of their language, but by features which could be described as external to the text itself. These include areas such as text purpose or social function, writer/reader relationships, and the medium of communication (e.g. newspaper article, letter, e-mail message). These external characteristics naturally have implications for what is called internal features of the text, including areas such as syntax, lexicogrammatical choice, organization, layout, etc. The result is that texts within a given genre are likely to share certain of these internal features, though it is also possible for texts within the same genre to differ very considerably in terms of their language and structure.
Why is it important to know what these different terms mean, and why should corpus texts be classified into genres in our classroom? The short answer is that you as language teachers and researchers need to know exactly what kind of language they are examining or describing. Furthermore, most of the time we want to deal with a specific genre or a manageable set of genres, so that we can define the scope of any generalizations we make.
Biber's work underlines the complexity of the task which writers and readers face in taking genre into account. For any genre, a range of text types may be appropriate, but the range is far from infinite, and an error in setting the parameters in the multiple dimensions along which a text type may vary can result in the comprehension and creation of an inappropriate text type. A further factor not taken into account in the foregoing, though important in Swales' description of genre, relates to convention. There have evolved a variety of linguistic conventions associated with certain genres. To take a simple example, there is a convention that a letter in English normally begins "Dear xxx"; such an opening can safely be used in any letter. However, beginning a letter "Darling xxx" would be appropriate in only very few situations, despite the fact that "dear" and "darling" would appear on the face of it to be similar expressions. Only convention dictates the use of "dear". Generic conventions can of course be deliberately flouted, and frequently are--or parodied, or varied--but they cannot simply be ignored.
Australian researchers such as Martin have recognized the empowering nature of mastery of genres, and have consequently urged the use of genre-based instruction in the Australian school system (see Gee, 1997 for a concise account of the research). The reverse side of the coin is equally valid: inadequate mastery of genre is a major problem in spoken and written communication. Failure to implement generic factors adequately may result in giving the impression to a reader that the writer is, perhaps, uneducated, weak, unenthusiastic, or deliberately insulting.
This is precisely because the concept of genre is involved with factors such as writer/reader relationships and text purpose. A text that sends the wrong generic signals may, for example, suggest that the writer is attempting to claim too close a relationship with the reader, or is being too distant. Generic errors result in misinterpretation not so much of core meaning as of attitudes. Comparisons of reading texts by foreign writers and native writers illustrate the ways in which their completion of writing tasks differs in terms of generic features as well as in terms of linguistic accuracy and range.
Sunny Hyon has conducted research toward the benefit and contribution of genre based instruction in reading. The research shows that the students who have genre sensitivity in reading will have:
1. better recognition of text.
2. greater attention to rhetorical features in texts.
3. understanding where to locate key information.
4. increasing reading speed.
5. greater confidence and enjoyment in reading.
6. good transfer of course knowledge to varied texts.

B. Genre: social function, generic structure and significant features
Senior high school students are required to understand well the following genres:

 Recount
 Report
 Discussion
 Explanation
 Exposition (Analytical)
 Exposition (Hortatory)
 News item
 Anecdote
 Narrative
 Procedure
 Descriptive
 Review

Each genres has different social function, generic structure and significant features.
i. Social Function
To retell events for the purpose of informing or entertaining
ii. Generic Structure
• Orientation: provides the setting and introduces participants
• Events: tell what happened, in what sequence.
• Re-orientation: optional-closure of events
iii. Significant Lexicogrammatical Features
• Focus on specific Participants
• Use of material processes
• Circumstances of time and place
• Use of past tense
• Focus on temporal sequence.
iv. Reading Text

Note that young writers often indicate temporal sequence with ‘ and then, and then, and then’, Alternatives can be modeled and used when the teacher and students jointly construct Recounts.

Note that the ‘twist’ in this particular text is related to the circumstances of place the penguin is taken to and to the man’s misinterpretation of the policeman’s (unspoken) reason for taking the penguin to the zoo.

i. Social Function
To describe the way things are, with reference to a range of natural, man-made and social phenomena in our environment.
ii. Generic Structure
 General classification: tells what the phenomenon under discussion is.
 Description tells what the phenomenon under discussion is like in terms of (1) parts, (2) qualities, (3) habits or behaviors, if living; uses, if non-natural.

iii. Significant Lexicogrammatical Features
 Focus on Generic Participants.
 Use of Relational Processes to state what is and that which it is.
 Use of simple present tense (unless extinct).
 No temporal sequence.
iv. Reading Text

Whales are sea-living mammals

They therefore breathe air but cannot survive on land. Some species are very large indeed and the blue whale, which can exceed 30m in length, is the largest animal to have lived on earth. Superficially, the whale looks rather like a fish, but there are important differences in its external structure: its tail consists of a pair of broad, flat, horizontal paddles (the tail of a fish is vertical) and it has a single nostril on top of its large, broad head. The skin is smooth and shiny and beneath it lies a layer of fat (blubber). This is up to 30 cm in thickness and serves to conserve heat and body fluids.

i. Social Function
To present (at least) two points of view about an issue.
ii. Generic Structure
• Issue:
- Statement
- Preview
• Arguments for and against or Statement of differing points of view.
- Point
- Ellaboration
• Conclusion or Recommendation.
iii. Significant Lexicogrammatical Features
 Focus on generic human and generic non-human Participants.
 Use of:
• Material Processes, e.g. has produced, have developed, to feed.
• Relational Processes, e.g., is, could have, cause, are.
• Mental Processes, e.g., feel.
 Use of Comparative: contrastive and Consequential conjunctions.
 Reasoning expressed as verbs and nouns (abstraction).
iv. Reading Text
Gene Splicing

Genetic research has produced both exciting and frightening possibilities. Scientists are now able to create new forms of life in the laboratory due to the development of gene splicing.

On the one hand, the ability to create life in the laboratory could greatly benefit mankind.

For example, because it is very expensive to obtain insulin from natural sources, scientists have developed a method to manufacture it inexpensively in the laboratory.

Another beneficial application of gene splicing is in a agriculture.

Scientists foresee the day when new plants will be developed using nitrogen from the air instead of from fertilizer. Therefore food production could be increased. In addition, entirely new plants could be developed to feed the world’s hungry people.
Argument against

Not everyone is excited about gene splicing, however. Some people feel that it could have terrible consequences.

A laboratory accident, for example, might cause an epidemic of an unknown disease that could wipe out humanity.

As a result of this controversy, the government has made rules to control genetic experiments. While some members of the scientific community feel that these rules are too strict, many other people feel that they are still not strict enough.

i. Social Function
To explain the processes involved in the formation or workings of natural or sociocultural phenomena.
ii. Generic Structure
 A general statement to position the reader.
 A sequenced explanation of why or how something occurs.
iii. Significant Lexicogrammatical Features
 Focus on generic, non-human Participants.
 Use mainly of Material and Relational Processes.
 Use mainly of temporal and causal Circumstances and Conjunctions.
 Some use of Passive voice to get Theme right.
iv. Reading Text

A brief Summary of Speech Production

Speech production is made possible by the specialised movements of our vocal organs that generate speech sounds waves.

Like all sound production, speech production reguires a source of energy. The source of energy for speech production is the steady stream of air that comes from the lungs as we exhale. When we breathe normally, the air stream is inaudible. To become audible, the air stream must vibrate rapidly. The vocal cords cause the air stream to vibrate.

As we talk, the vocal cords open and close rapidly, chopping up the steady air stream into a series of puffs. These puffs are heard as a buzz. But this buzz is still not speech.

To produce speech sounds, the vocal tract must change shape. During speech we continually alter the shape of the vocal track by moving the tongue and lips,etc. These movements change the acoustic properties of the vocal tract, which in turn produce the different sounds of speech.

i. Social Function
To persuade the reader or listener that something s the case.
ii. Generic Structure
• Thesis
Position: Introduces topic and indicates writer’s position.
Preview: Outlines the main arguments to be presented.
• Arguments
Point: restates main arguments outlined in Preview.
Elaboration: develops and supports each Point/argument
• Reiteration: restates writer’s position.
• Significant Lexicogrammatical Features
 Focus on generic human and non-human Participants.
 Use of simple present tense.
 Use of Relational Processes.
 Use of Internal conjunction to state argument
 Reasoning through Causal Conjunction or nominalization.
iii. Reading Text

In Australia there are three levels of government, the federal government, state governments and local governments. All of these levels of government are necessary. This is so for a number of reasons.

First, the federal government is necessary for the big things.

They keep the economy in order and look after things like defence.

Similarly, the state governments look after the middle sized things.

For example they look after law and order, preventing things like vandalism in schools.

Finally, local governments look after the small things.

They look after things like collecting rubbish, otherwise everyone would have diseases.

Thus, for the reasons above we can conclude that the three levels of government are necessary

i. Social Function
To persuade the reader or listener that something should or should not be the case.
ii. Generic Structure
 Thesis: announcement of issue concern.
 Arguments: reasons for concern, leading to recommendation.
 Recommendation: statement of what ought or ought not to happen.
iii. Significant Lexicogrammatical Features
• Focus on generic human and non-human Participants, except for speaker or writer referring to self.
• Use of:
- Mental Processes: to state what writer thinks or feels about issue, e.g. realize, feel, appreciate.
- Material Processes: to state what happens, e.g., is polluting, drive, travel, spend, should be treated.
- Relational Processes: to state what is or should be, e.g., doesn’t seem to have been, is
• Use of simple present tense

iv. Reading Text
Country Concern

In all the discussion over the removal of lead from petrol (and the atmosphere) there doesn’t seem to have been any mention of the difference between driving in the city and the country.

While I realise my leaded petrol car is polluting the air wherever I drive, I feel that when you travel through the country, where you only see another car every five to ten minutes, the problem is not as severe as when traffic is concentrated on city roads.

Those who want to penalise older, leaded petrol vehicles and their owners don’t seem to appreciate that, in the country, there is no public transport to fall back upon and one’s own vehicle is the only way to get about.

I feel that country people, who often have to travel huge distances to the nearest town and who already spend a great deal of money on petrol, should be treated differently to the people who live in the city.

i. Social Function
To inform readers, listeners or viewers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important.
ii. Generic Structure
 Newsworthy Event(s): recounts the event in summary form
 Background Events: elaborate what happened, to whom, in what circumstances.
 Sources: comments by participants in, witnesses to and authorities expert on the event.
iii. Significant Lexicogrammatical Features
 Short, telegraphic information about story captured in headline.
 Use of Material Processes to retell the event (in the text below, many of the Material Processes are nominalised).
 Use of projecting Verbal Processes in Sources stage.
 Focus on Circumstances (e.g. mostly within Qualifiers).
iv. Reading Text
Town ‘Contaminated’

Moscow – A Russian journalist has uncovered evidence of another Soviet nuclear catastrophe, which killed 10 sailors and contaminated an entire town.

Yelena Vazrshavskya is the first journalist to speak to people who witnessed the explosion of a nuclear submarine at the naval base of shkotovo – 22 near Vladivostock.

The accident, which occurred 13 months before the Chernobyl disaster, spread radioactive fall-out over the base and nearby town, but was covered up by officials of the then Soviet Union. Residents were told the explosion in the reactor of the Victor-class submarine during a refit had been a ‘thermal’ and not a nuclear explosion. And those involved in the clean up operation to remove more than 600 tones of contaminated material were sworn to secrecy.

A board of investigators was later to describe it as the worst accident in the history of the Soviet Navy.

i. Social Function
To amuse, entertain and to deal with actual or vicarious experience in different ways; Narratives deal with problematic events which lead to a crisis or turning point of some kind, which in turn finds a resolution.

ii. Generic Structure
 Orientation: sets the scene and introduces the participants.
 Evaluation: a stepping back to evaluate the plight.
 Complication: a crisis arises.
 Resolution: the crisis is resolved, for better or for worse.
 Re-orientation: optional.
iii. Significant Lexicogrammatical Features
 Focus on specific and usually individualized Participants.
 Use of Material Processes (and in this text, Behavioral and Verbal Processes.
 Use of Relational Processes and Mental Processes.
 Use of temporal conjunctions and temporal Circumstances.
 Use of past tense.
iv. Reading Text
Snow White

Once upon a time there lived a little girl named Snow White. She lived with her Aunt and Uncle because her parents were dead.

One day she heard her Uncle and Aunt talking about leaving Snow White in the castle because they both wanted to go to America and they didn’t have enough money to take Snow White.

Snow White did not want her Uncle and Aunt to do this so she decided it would be best if she ran away. The next morning she ran away from home when her Aunt and Uncle were having breakfast. She ran away into the woods.

She was very tired and hungry.

Then she saw this little cottage. She knocked but no one answered so she went inside and fell asleep.

Meanwhile, the seven dwarfs were coming home from work. They went inside. There they found Snow White sleeping. Then Snow White woke up. She saw the dwarfs. The dwarfs said, what is your name? Snow White said, ‘My name is Snow White’.

Doc said, ‘If you wish, you may live here with us”. Snow White said, ‘Oh could(I) ?.Thankyou’. Then Snow White told the dwarfs the whole story and Snow White and the 7 dwarfs lived happily ever after.

i. Social Function
To describe how something is accomplished through a sequence of actions or steps.
ii. Generic Structure
 Goal
 Materials (not required for all Procedural texts).
 Steps 1-n (i.e., Goal followed by a series of steps oriented to achieving the Goal).
iii. Significant Lexicogrammatical Features
 Focus on generalized human agents.
 Use of simple present tense, often Imperative.
 Use mainly of temporal conjunctions (or numbering to indicate sequence).
 Use mainly of Material Processes.

iv. Reading Text

The Hole Game

Materials needed
Two players
One marble per person
A hole in ground
A line (distance) to start from

1. First you must dub (click marbles together).
2. Then you must check that the marbles are in good condition and are nearly worth the same value.
3. Next you must dig a hole in the ground and draw a line a fair distance away from the hole.
4. The first player carefully throws his or her marble towards the hole.
5. Then the second player tries to throw his or her marble closer to the hole than his or her opponent.
6. The player whose marble is closest to the hole tries to flick his or her marble into the hole. If successful, this player tries to flick his or her opponent’s marble into the hole.

The person flicking the last marble into the hole wins and gets to keep both marbles.

i. Social Function
To describe a particular person, place or thing.
ii. Generic Structure
 Identification: Identifies phenomenon to be described.
 Description: describes parts, qualities, characteristics.
iii. Significant Lexicogrammatical Features
 Focus on specific Participants
 Use of Attributive and Identifying Processes.
 Frequent use of Ephitets and Classifiers in nominal groups.
 Use of simple present tense.
iv. Reading Text

Natural Bridge National Park

Natural Bridge National Park is a luscious tropical rainforest.

It is located 110 kilometres south of Brisbane and is reached by following the Pacific Highway to Nerang and then by traveling through the Numinbah Valley. This scenic roadway lies in the shadow of the Lamington National Park.

The phenomenon of the rock formed into a natural ‘arch’ and the cave through which a waterfall cascades is a short 1 kilometre walk below a dense rainforest canopy from the main picnic area. Swimming is permitted in the rock pools. Night-time visitors to the cave will discover the unique feature of the glow worms.

Picnic areas offer toilets, barbecues, shelter sheds, water and fireplaces; however, overnight camping is not permitted.

i. Social Function
To critique an art work, event for a public audience.
Such works of art include movies, TV shows, books, plays, operas, recordings, exhibitions, concerts and ballets.
ii. Generic Structure
 Orientation: places the work in its general and particular context, often by comparing it with others of its kind or through analogue with a non-art object or event.
 Interpretive Recount: summaries the plot and/or provides an account of how the reviewed rendition of the work came into being; is optional, but if present, often recursive.
 Evaluation: provides an evaluation of the work and/or its performance or production; is usually recursive.
 Evaluative Summation: provides a kind of punchline which sums up the reviewer’s opinion of the art event as a whole; is optional.
iii. Significant Lexicogrammatical Features
 Focus on Particular Participants.
 Direct expression of options through use of Attitudinal Ephitets in nominal groups; qualitative Attributes and Affective Mental Processes.
 Use of elaborating and extending clause and group complexes to package the information.
 Use of metaphorical language (e.g., The wit was there, dexterously ping ponged to and fro …).
iv. Reading Text

Private Lives Sparkle

Since the first production of ‘Private Lives’ in 1930, with the theatre’s two leading sophisticates Noel Coward and Gertrude Lawrence in the leads, the play has tended to be seen as a vehicle for stars.

QUT Academy of the Arts’ production boasted no ‘stars’, but certainly fielded potential stars in a sparkling performance that brought out just how fine a piece of craftsmanship Coward’s play is.

More than 60 years later, what new could be deduced from so familiar a theme?

Director Rod Wissler’s highly perceptive approach went beyond the glittery surface of Witty banter to the darker implications beneath.

With the shifting of attitudes to social values, it became clear that Victor and Sibyl were potentially the more admirable of the couples, with standards better adjusted than the volatile and self-indulgent Elyot and Amanda.

The wit was there, dexterously ping-ponged to and fro by a vibrant Amanda (Catherine Jones) and a suave Elyot (Daniel Kealy).

Julie Eckersley’s Sibyl was a delightful creation, and Phillip Cameron-Smith’s more serious playing was just right for Victor. Jodie Levesconte was a superb French maid. James Maclean’s set captured the Thirties atmosphere with many subtle touches.

All involved deserve the highest praise.

C. Teaching cycle
Many genre-based textbooks discuss a particular teaching and learning cycle that is often associated with systemic classroom application. This teaching and learning cycle is reproduced in figure 1 which covers these following steps:
1. building knowledge of field
2. modeling of text
3. joint construction of text
4. independent construction of text

The teaching and learning cycle aims to provide support for learners as they move from building up the content of a text, through the presentation and discussion of a model of the target text, to a “joint construction” by the teacher and learners of a further model text.

At each of the stages, learners’ attention is drawn to the cultural and social context of the text, the structure of the text, the content of the text, and characteristic linguistic features of the text. The teacher may enter at any phase of the cycle, depending on the learners’ stage of preparedness for the particular activity; that is, the cycle is intended to be used flexibly, with teachers encouraged to enter the cycle at whatever point best meets their students’ needs.

Figure 1: teaching and learning cycle (Hammond et al. 1992:17)

This teaching and learning cycle is based on the notion of scaffolding, which draws from Vygotsky’s view that higher thinking process, including language, arise as a consequence of human interaction. Scaffolding involves providing support for learners as they develop in their linguistic competence. Integral to this notion is the idea that learners are “in the position of solving a problem that is beyond their level of competence”. At the same time, the person that is helping them is in the position of “knowing” how to perform the task. Through the scaffolded interaction, learners come to the point where they are able to perform the task, fist with assistance, then independently.

Activity types that might be drawn on in a scaffolded teaching and learning cycle include:
• Preparation activities
• Activities that focus on discourse awareness and skills
• Activities that focus on language awareness and skills
• Language practice activities
• Extension activities
These activities can be used in any particular order, depending on student needs.

D. Reading fluency
Fluency means reading faster, smoother, more expressively, or more quietly with the goal of reading silently. Fluent reading approaches the speed of speech. Beginning readers usually do not read fluently; reading is often a word-by-word struggle.
How do we help children struggling with slow, painstaking sounding out and blending? Support and encourage them. Effortful decoding is a necessary step to sight recognition. You can say, "I know reading is tough right now, but this is how you learn new words." Ask students to reread each sentence that requires unusual decoding effort.
In general, the fluency formula is this: Read and reread decodable words in connected text. Decode unknown words rather than guessing from context. Reread to master texts. Use text with words children can decode using known correspondences. Use whole, engaging texts to sustain interest.
There are some research-based for teaching reading fluency.
1. Repeated readings. We often restrict reading lessons to "sight reading." Who could learn a musical instrument by only sight-reading music and never repeating pieces until they could be played in rhythm, up to tempo, with musical expression? In repeated reading, children work on reading as they would work at making music: They continue working with each text until it is fluent. Repeated reading works best with readers who are full alphabetic, i.e., who know how to decode some words. Use a passage of 100 words or so at the instructional level. The text should be known, not predictable. The reader might select a favorite from among familiar books.
Here are two ways to frame repeated reading.
a. Graph how fast students read with a "one-minute read." Graphing is motivating because it makes progress evident. The basic procedure is to have your student read for one minute, count the number of words read, and graph the result with a child-friendly graph, e.g., moving a basketball player closer to a slam dunk.
Aim for speed, not accuracy. Time each reading with a stopwatch—if available; use the countdown timer, with its quiet beeping signal, rather than saying "stop," which can be startling. It is important in one-minute reads to emphasize speed rather than accuracy. Over repeated readings, speed in WPM will increase and errors will decrease. If you emphasize accuracy, speed falls off.

I recommend you get a baseline reading first. A realistic average goal for a first grade reader is 60 WPM, but adjust the goal to your student's level—30 WPM may be plenty for very slow readers, and 120 WPM may be an appropriate challenge for others. Laminate your chart, and place a scale in erasable marker to the right. When the goal is reached, raise the bar 5 WPM for the next book, which requires a new scale on your graph.
To speed up the word count, mark off every 10 words in light pencil so that you can count by tens. Subtract a word for each miscue so accuracy not totally abandoned. Continue to support reading in ordinary ways: Ask a question or make a comment about story events after each reading to keep a meaning focus. Collect miscue notes to analyze for missing correspondences.

Children enjoy one-minute reads because their success is evident. They will ask you if they can read the passage again!
b. Use check sheets for partner readings. With a class of children, pair up readers to respond to one another. Begin by explaining what you'll be listening for. Model fluent and nonfluent reading. For example, show the difference between smooth and choppy reading. Show how expressive readers make their voices go higher and lower, faster and slower, louder and softer.
In each pair, students take turns being the reader and the listener. The reader reads a selection three times. The listener gives a report after the second and third readings. All reports are complimentary. No criticism or advice is allowed.
2. Tape-Assisted Reading: A reading passage is tape-recorded. The student reads the print aloud in synchronization with the taped passage. Students can listen to and follow along with the taped passage before reading the passage aloud. Students should reread the passage several times.
3. Chunking: The teacher selects somewhat familiar text and divides it into phrase groups of words (chunks) by making slash marks to indicate the phrases. Students practice reading the phrases fluently. Slash marks are removed.
E. Reading comprehension
Reading comprehension is the process of gaining meaning from text, which is the purpose of reading. The act of comprehending text involves a person's ability to know and use strategies (metacognition) before, during, and after reading to successfully understand what is being read.
Some instructional guidelines for teaching reading comprehension are:
Before Reading
• Students should learn how to activate their background knowledge in connection with the topic to be read.
• Students should be explicitly taught key specialized vocabulary related to the topic.
• Students should know the purpose for reading.
• Students should be given a strategy for helping them to preview and think about the text so that they have a sense of the content to be read.
During Reading
• Students should be taught self-questioning strategies to monitor their comprehension of the text being read.
• Students may find the use of graphic organizers (e.g., semantic maps) and study guides helpful to facilitate comprehension.
• Students should be taught how to use strategies when they don't understand what they are reading.
After Reading
• Students should be taught how to use self-questioning strategies to reflect on what they have read.
• Students should be able to summarize and retell what they have read. Students should be able to summarize and retell what they have read.
Some research-based interventions for teaching reading comprehension to secondary readers are:
• Text Preview: Text Preview is a pre-reading strategy that includes a teacher-developed introductory passage containing a framework for understanding a section of text. Text Preview can be used with narrative and expository text. Text Preview includes a section to motivate students, a synopsis of the passage, and questions to guide reading.
• Paraphrasing Strategy: Using specific instructional procedures from the Strategy Intervention Model, students learn how to recall the main idea and specific details of text they have read. Students use the mnemonic RAP to remind themselves to read, ask questions, and put the main idea and details into their own words.
• Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR): Students learn four reading strategies that can be used before, during, and after reading. They apply Preview before reading, Click and Clunk and Get the Gist during reading, and Wrap-Up after reading. The strategies emphasize predicting, brainstorming, finding the main idea, determining meaning of unknown words, and summarizing the text they have read.
• POSSE Strategy: Students discuss their reading and use the strategies of predicting, organizing, searching/summarizing, and evaluating to comprehend expository text.
• Story-Mapping: Using the elements of story grammar (e.g., setting, problem statement, goals) in narrative text, Story-Mapping provides a framework for identifying and recording important information and for answering implicit and explicit comprehension questions about the story.

Generally you may help students learn how to comprehend a text by producing their own graphic information like tables, flow charts, branch diagrams etc.
Here is one method you could use:
• Once you have chosen the text, read it carefully. As you read, interact with the text. For example, underline or circle important information, write questions which you think the text raises or doesn't answer, list the main ideas and the supporting detail, draw a table or a diagram etc.

• Take note of how you interacted with the text. Did the text lend itself to a particular type of interaction. For example, it is often quite natural to develop a graphic organizer when we are reading and interacting with some types of texts. So...
If the text … you may have developed …
… compared and contrasted two or more things a table or Venn diagram
… described a process a flow chart.
… described a fictional or non-fictional sequence of events a flow chart.
… described how something can be classified a branch diagram.
… described an object a labeled diagram.
… presented an argument a spider diagram or mind map.
• Decide whether you want your students to do a reconstruction activity or an analysis activity.
• Use how you interacted with the text as a basis for your activities.
 For example, if you developed a flow chart while reading the text and you want your students to do a reconstruction activity, develop a relevant flow chart and then delete some of the information from the chart. Your students must fill in the missing information as they read. Write the instructions for the task.
 Or, if you developed a flow chart while reading the text and you want your students to do an analysis activity, write the instructions that will help them construct their own flow chart. There might be several steps in this activity. Firstly, you might ask your students to underline the steps in the process that is being described. Then you might ask them to draw a flow chart and fill this information in to it.
F. Voluntary reading
Both reading fluency and reading comprehension should be reinforced through encouraging children to read voluntarily in their free time. This voluntary reading is often so called extensive reading. Extensive reading remains the best-kept secret in English language teaching - a way for learners to learn in their own time, at their own pace, without teachers or schools. Sounds too good to be true, doesn't it?
Through enjoying reading in English your learners would improve their fluency and comprehension. There is a substantial body of research which supports these claims. The key to success lies in the enjoyment of reading. And now many series of readers (such as Cambridge, Heinemann, Oxford, and Penguin) for any stages of reader.
You may conduct sustained silent reading as the systematic implementation of extensive reading. Sustained silent reading (SSR, a.k.a. DEAR, "drop everything and read") gives children a daily opportunity to read and discover the pleasure of reading. Each student chooses a book or magazine, and the entire class reads for a set period of time each day. SSR has been shown to lead to more positive attitudes toward reading and to gains in reading achievement when peer discussion groups discuss the books they read. When students share their reactions to books with classmates, they get recommendations from peers they take seriously.
Tierney, Readence, and Dishner, in Reading Strategies and Practices (Allyn & Bacon, 1990, pp. 461-462) list three "cardinal rules" for SSR:
a. Everybody reads. Both students and teacher will read something of their own choosing. Any text that keeps the reader interested is acceptable. The teacher reads too. Completing homework assignments, grading papers, and similar activities are discouraged. I recommend teachers read children's books so they can participate in discussions and give booktalks for their students.
b. There are to be no interruptions during USSR. The word uninterrupted is an essential part of the technique. Interruptions result in loss of comprehension and loss of interest by many students; therefore, questions and comments should be held until the silent reading period has concluded.
c. No one will be asked to report what they have read. It is essential that students recognize SSR is a period of free reading, with the emphasis on reading for enjoyment. Teachers should not require book reports, journal entries, or anything other than free reading. Do not give grades for SSR.

Other essentials for encouraging voluntary reading include a plentiful library of books and frequent opportunities to choose. Children should be allowed and encouraged to read page turners (e.g., easy series books) rather than the classics for their independent reading. For gaining fluency, quantity is more important than quality.
Book introductions help children make informed decisions about what they want to read. For an effective booktalk, choose a book you like. Show the illustrations to the students. Give a brief talk, hitting the high points: the setting, characters, and the inciting incident leading to the problem or goal. Do not get into the plot, and especially not the resolution! If there is no clear plot, ask a have-you-ever question (e.g., Have you ever been afraid of the dark?) and relate the question to the book. Good booktalks often feature some oral reading, e.g., of a suspenseful part.
G. Jigsaw reading game
This is an approach to reading that involves the students in fluency and comprehension. It is very useful when working with short authentic texts such as newspaper articles, story or narrative text, etc. Jigsaw reading can be done in two ways

Two separate stories
If you have two news stories that share a theme - for example two separate stories on crime - prepare comprehension questions for each story. Give one half of the class (Group A) one story, and the other half (Group B) the other. The students read their article, answer the questions and check understanding. Students then pair up with someone from the other group and tell them about their story, and listen to the other one. To help students remember their story you may get them to take notes. Alternatively, the students can keep the article with them to refer to. Be careful though, as lazier (or ingenious) students will either read the article aloud, or simply give it to their partner to read!!

One story split in two
Some stories can be clearly divided in two. Follow the same procedure as above, but giving each group only one half of the story. When the students are recounting their half of the article, make sure that the student with the opening half goes first.
Once the students have orally exchanged stories, they should then read the other person's article.
As a refinement, you can give student B questions to quiz student A about their article.

Jigsaw reading is a great way to introduce speaking into a reading lesson. It provides a real opportunity for genuine communication. In real life, we may tell people about a news article we have read, so this is a classroom activity that is fairly authentic.


Answer these following questions:
1. What is genre and genre based instruction?
2. Why should all texts be classified into genres in our classroom?
3. What are the benefits of genre based sensitivity in reading? Mention them!
4. What is the social function generic structure of anecdote text?
5. Mention five lexical features of narrative text?
6. What are the social function and generic structures of descriptive text?
7. In what kind of writing you can find procedure text type?
8. What are the differences of reading fluency and reading comprehension?
9. Mention some strategies of teaching reading comprehension!
10. What may appear as obstacles in promoting the genre based instruction in reading?

Complete these following tasks!
1. Work in pairs to consider the story Little Red Riding Hood and match up the main points in the story with its structure (Beginning/Orientation, Problem/Complication, Problem seems to be resolved/Minor Resolution, New Problem/Complication, Problem is solved/Ending/Resolution, Moral/Coda/Evaluative ending).
• Little Red Riding Hood sets out for Grandmother's house;
• Little Red Riding Hood meets the wolf;
• The wolf leaves Little Red Riding Hood and races to Grandmother's house;
• The wolf eats Grandmother;
• The wolf tricks Little Red Riding Hood;
• The woodcutter saves Little Red Riding Hood;
• Children should not talk to strangers

2. Work in pairs or small groups to:
a) identify the orientation, complication and resolution of this The Trojan Horse story
b) how to use this text for jigsaw reading game.
The Trojan Horse
In ancient times the mainland and islands of Greece were divided into small states. One of the states, Sparta, was ruled by an old but kindly king called Menelaus. Menelaus had a young wife, Helen, who was the most beautiful woman in the world. Any man who saw Helen fell in love with her immediately. Paris, the son of the King of Troy, was one such man who fell in love with Helen. He managed to kidnap her and took her back to Troy which was a magnificent walled city on the coast of what is now called Turkey.

Menelaus and his family were furious and persuaded all the Greek kings, princes and heroes to help them bring Helen back to Greece. One of these heroes was Odysseus, the King of Ithaca. Odysseus was not very good-looking, but he was clever and he was a favorite of Athena, the goddess of Wisdom.

The Greeks assembled a large army and sailed to Troy, which they attacked from the beach. The Greeks managed to trap the Trojans inside their city but the Trojans fought hard and the Greeks could not defeat them. The war between Greece and Troy raged for ten years.

There were heroes and bravery on both sides but there was also much savagery, treachery, death and suffering. No matter how hard both armies tried, the Greeks were never able to enter Troy and the Trojans were never able to drive the Greeks away. It seemed that this dreadful war would go on forever. After ten years of fighting, the Trojans were desperate to leave their besieged city and the Greek soldiers simply wanted to go home.

However, Odysseus refused to give up and worked out a plan to enter the city. One morning the Trojans looked out from their besieged city. They could not see the Greek army or the Greek ships. The Trojans could not believe it. They thought that the Greeks had surrendered and for the first time in ten years they left their city and went out into the fields and onto the beach. There was absolutely no sign of the Greeks. Outside the city gates the Trojans found a huge wooden horse. Some Trojans were suspicious, but most of them thought the Greeks had left the wooden horse as a gift. They dragged the horse into the city as an offering to the gods to thank them for the end of the war. All day and into the night they celebrated the end of the war with banquets and dancing, and the wooden horse was the centre of the celebrations.

Later that night, when all the Trojans had fallen asleep, a secret trapdoor in the side of the giant horse opened silently. Odysseus and his soldiers, who had been hiding inside the horse, crept out without a sound. They quietly opened the city gates and the waiting Greek army, which had sailed back to Troy under cover of darkness, entered the city. When the Trojans woke they found themselves completely overpowered by the Greeks. All the Trojan men were killed and all the Trojan treasure was taken back to Greece along with the women and children who became slaves. The Greeks burnt Troy to the ground and finally Menelaus was able to take Helen back to Greece.

The long war was over, but a terrible price had been paid by both sides.

3. Go to the computer which has internet connection and search this website http://www.dramaplus.org/story1.htm.
 Give your comment toward its usefulness for your professionalism.
 How such sites can be supporting media for your genre based instruction?
 Find out the similar sites with the help of searching engine like www.yahoo.com.

4. How this text is develop in your teaching cycles included
 building knowledge of field
 modeling of text
 joint construction of text
 independent construction of text

Making Indomie Fried Noodles

Do you like Indomie goreng? I’m sure you do! How do you make it?
Let’s try to explain the way in English. First, open the package of Indomie Fried noodles while boiling two glasses of water in a pan. While waiting for the water to boil, pour the seasoning, chilli sauce, soya sauce and oil into a bowl. After the water is boiled, drain the noodles and throw away the water. Then pour the noodles into the bowl, and mix them with the seasoning, sauce, and the other ingredients. Your noodles are ready!


Bhatia, V.K. (1993). Analysing Genre: Language Use in Professional Settings. London & New York: Longman.

Biber, D. (1988). Variation across Speech and Writing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Biber, D. (1995). Dimensions of Register Variation: A Cross-linguistic Comparison. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Brown, H. Douglas (1994) Teaching By Principles: An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Regents

Celce-Murcia, M., Z. Dornyei, S. Thurrell 1995. Communicative Competence: A Pedagogically Motivated Model with Content Specifications. In Issues in Applied Linguistics, 6/2, pp 5-35.

Celce-Murcia, M. , Olshtain, E. 2001. Discourse and Context in Language Teaching: a Guide for Language Teachers. UK: Cambridge University Press.

Doff, Adrian (1988) Teach English: A Training Course for Teachers. Great Britain: Cambridge University Press.

Dorney, Z. dan S. Thurrell. 1992. Conversation and Dialogues in Action. New York: Prentice Hall.

Farrell, Thomas S.C. (2002) Planning Lessons for Reading Class. Singapore: SEAMEO Regional Language Center.
Gerot, L. dan P. Wignell. 1995. Making Sense of Functional Grammar. Sydney: Antepodean Educational Enterprises.

Grellet, Francoise (1994). Developing Reading Skills. Great Britain: Cambridge University Press.

Gee, S. (1997). Teaching writing: A genre-based approach. In G. Fulcher (Ed.), Writing in the English Language Classroom, pp. 24-40. Hemel Hempstead: Prentice Hall Europe ELT. [-15-]

Kurikulum 2004: Standar Kompetensi Mata Pelajaran Bahasa Inggris Sekolah Menengah Pertama. Jakarta: Departemen Pendidikan Nasional.

Paltridge, Brian (2004) Genre and the Language Learning Classroom. Michigan: The University of Michigan Press.

Roseberry, Robert L. and Rachel Weinstock (1992) Reading, Etc.: AN Integrated Skills Text. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Regents.

Swales, J. (1990). Genre Analysis: English in Academic and Research Settings. Cambridge: CUP.


0 komentar:

Posting Komentar